Incorporation of Reaction Center Proteins into Tethered Lipid Vesicles

INCORPORATION of Reaction Center Proteins into Tethered Lipid Vesicles

The ubiquity integral membrane proteins and their importance in cellular processes, particularly signaling and transport, have motivated a wide range functional and structural studies. However, it has proven to be very difficult to incorporate functional and laterally mobile membrane proteins into supported lipid bilayers, which allow experimental access to and control over bilayer components. This difficulty presumably is due to the close proximity of the solid support surface to the bilayer.

We here demonstrate that the reaction center, an integral membrane protein from purple photosynthetic bacteria, is successfully reconstituted into lipid vesicles and tethered via complementary DNA oligonucleotide-lipid conjugates to a planar lipid bilayer. Using dye-labeled proteins and lipids, the presence of both protein and lipid in individual tethered vesicles is easily confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The proteoliposomes are mobile on the surface, demonstrating that the tethered vesicle system may be used to study membrane protein function and interaction in a native-like lipid environment.

Other research interests

Covalent modification of the reaction center for incorporation of probes that can report protein properties/function (electron transfer) e.g.
–measurement of the electric fields in the reaction center using vibrational probes
–protein dynamics as a function of charge separation using spin labels

Non-research interests

Classical music performance (violin/viola, chamber music), science policy, hiking/tennis/swimming

Hertz Foundation Fellowships

The Graduate Fellowship Award
is based on merit (not need) and consists of a cost-of-education allowance and a personal-support stipend.

The cost-of-education allowance is accepted by all of the tenable schools in lieu of all fees and tuition. Hertz Fellows therefore have no liability for any ordinary educational costs, regardless of their choice among tenable schools.

Successful applicants have the choice of two Fellowship options:

Option 1 – Five Year Hertz

  • $31,000/ 9-month personal stipend*
  • Full tuition equivalent
  • Renewable for up to 5 years

Option 2 – Five-Year Coordinated
Hertz Period – Two Years

  • $36,000/ 9-month personal stipend*
  • Full tuition equivalent

Other Fellowship Period – Up to Three Years

  • $3,500/ year supplemental stipend* from Hertz
  • Requires Awardee to accept a 3-year Fellowship from another source

The Five-Year Hertz Fellowship award (Option 1) is renewable annually (upon a showing of satisfactory progress toward receipt of the Ph.D. degree) for a total Fellowship tenure of no more than five years.

* $5,000/ year additional stipend for Fellows with dependent children.

Fellows must attend one of the Foundation’s tenable schools, or must petition the Foundation to include a school that he/she desires to attend.

Eligibility

Evidence of exceptional creativity, broad understanding of physical principles, and outstanding potential for innovative research is expected.

Eligible applicants for Hertz Fellowships must be students of the applied physical sciences who are citizens or permanent residents of the United States of America, and who are willing to morally commit to make their skills available to the United States in time of national emergency (see our Moral Commitmentsection).

College seniors wishing to pursue the Ph.D. degree in any of the fields of particular interest to the Foundation, as well as graduate students already in the process of doing so, may apply.

We screen Fellowship applicants for qualities the Foundation believes are essential ingredients of future professional accomplishment and/or reasonably reliable leading indicators of future professional success. These include:

  • Exceptional Intelligence and Creativity
    with particular emphasis on those aspects pertinent to technical endeavors
  • Excellent Technical Education
    evidenced not only by transcripts and reference reports from senior technical professionals, but also by the results of a personal, technical interview
  • Orientation and Commitment to the applications of the physical sciences
    as is typical of most applicants
  • Extraordinary Accomplishment in technical or related professional studies
    which may offset slightly lower academic records, or add luster to outstanding ones
  • Features of Temperament and Character conducive to high attainment as a technical professional
    the assessment of which is difficult, albeit important to the Foundation
  • Appropriate moral and ethical values
    of considerable interest to the Foundation in the furthering of our basic goals
  • Leverage
    what difference the award of the Hertz Fellowship is likely to make in the kind, quality, and/or personal creativity of the student’s graduate research

We do not support students pursuing advanced professional degrees other than the Ph.D., such as enrollees in M.D., LLD or MBA programs, although we will support the Ph.D. portion of a joint M.D./Ph.D. study program. For a list of general fields of study in which Graduate Fellowships are offered by the Foundation, see Fields.

 

Graduate Fellowship Awards

The Hertz Foundation’s Graduate Fellowship award, which is based on merit (not need) consists of a cost-of-education allowance and a personal-support stipend.

The cost-of-education allowance is accepted by all of the tenable schools in lieu of all fees and tuition. Hertz Fellows therefore have no liability for any ordinary educational costs, regardless of their choice among tenable schools.

Successful applicants have the choice of two Fellowship options:

  1. Five-Year Hertz – Option 1
    – $28,000/9-month personal stipend
    – Full tuition equivalent
    – Renewable for up to 5 years
  2. Five-Year Coordinated – Option 2
    Hertz Period – Two Years
    – $33,000/9-month personal stipend
    – Full tuition equivalent
    Other Fellowship Period – Up to Three Years
    – $3,000/ year supplemental stipend from Hertz
    – Requires Awardee to accept a 3-year Fellowship from another source

The Five-Year Hertz Fellowship award (Option 1) is renewable annually (upon a showing of satisfactory progress toward receipt of the Ph.D. degree) for a total Fellowship tenure of no more than five years.

Fellows must attend one of the Foundation’s tenable schools, or must petition the Foundation to include a school that he/she desires to attend.

Welcome to the Hertz Foundation

We are a tax exempt, not-for profit organization which provides fellowships tenable at over 40 of the nation’s finest universities for graduate work leading to award of the Ph.D. degree in applications of the physical sciences.

Each year the Foundation conducts a national competition for new Hertz Fellows. Of those who apply, only about one quarter will be interviewed. Of those who are interviewed, approximately one in ten will be awarded a Hertz Fellowship.

We look to support the graduate education of America’s most promising technical talent, the Ph.D.-directed effort of the young men and women who can be expected to have the greatest impact on the application of the physical sciences to human problems during the next half-century. If you reasonably believe that you are one of these, we cordially invite your Fellowship application.

The Graduate Fellowships of the Hertz Foundation are widely considered to be among the most prestigious offered anywhere. The Foundation’s standing policy is that they will be structured to be the most attractive in their class in both material terms and duration of tenure.

Over the past seven years, successful candidates for Hertz Foundation Graduate Fellowships have been awarded their undergraduate degrees from a very diverse group of schools.

Deadlines/Updates

To assure full consideration of your application for a Fannie and John Hertz Graduate Fellowship, the following deadlines will apply:

  • Graduate Fellowship Application Deadline: October 28, 2005 submitted by Applicant
  • Application supporting materials: October 28, 2005 (transcripts, GRE score reports, etc.) submitted by Applicant
  • Graduate Fellowship Reference Report Deadline: October 31, 2005 submitted by References

The Hertz Foundation: A Historical Sketch

Our Founder, John Daniel Hertz, was an Austrian emigrant who came to the United States and lived the American Dream. He arrived from Europe as a very poor young boy and matured into a prominent man of many accomplishments, most notably as a leader in the advent of the automotive age.

Throughout his life, he reiterated his appreciation for the opportunities which this land afforded him for the achievement of success in business and finance, as well as for the attainment of leadership in the avocation of his and Mrs. Hertz’s choice – the breeding and racing of outstanding horses. These opportunities, he often stated, would have been denied him in the land of his birth.

He expressed his gratitude in many ways, but the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation, representing one of the culminating activities of his life, was perhaps the most eloquent and enduring. It was designed to fulfill a need which Mr. Hertz sensed long before Sputnik: this nation, in order to survive, prosper, and lead, had to increase substantially the ranks of its most competent engineers and applied scientists. He felt that the Foundation could perform a notable service to the nation by fostering the education and training of outstanding students in these areas, and, in the spirit of the country which he revered, by doing it without discrimination by reason of race/color, creed, sex or geographical origin. The wish of Mr. Hertz, in establishing the Foundation, was to enhance the technological stature of the United States.

In 1957, the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation was formed with the goal of supporting applied sciences education. This was originally accomplished by granting undergraduate scholarships on a national scale to qualified and financially-limited mechanical and electrical engineering students undertaking a curriculum fully accredited by the Engineering Council for Professional Development.

In 1963, a special committee of the Foundation’s Board of Directors, after consultation with a large number of distinguished engineering and science educators throughout the United States, recommended a major modification in the Foundation’s program. The Foundation, in accordance with the recommendation of this committee, decided to phase out the national undergraduate scholarship program, and adopted in its place a plan for the granting of postgraduate fellowships leading to the award of the Ph.D. At that time, the scope of the studies to be supported by Fellowships was enlarged to include both the fields of engineering and applied sciences, with special emphasis placed on physical sciences and the stimulation of exceptional competence and innovation-oriented development in these fields.

The Foundation’s Board of Directors believes Mr. Hertz’s purpose is most effectively accomplished by supporting the graduate studies of excellent young men and women. We attempt to select Hertz Fellows who will become leaders in applied scientific and technological advances, exemplars of teaching skills in the applied physical sciences, and key contributors to the advancement of national technological capabilities on which the long-term well-being of the United States largely depends. We hold an annual, national competition for Hertz Foundation graduate fellowships as a means of identifying these future leaders and offering them our support.

Commitment

Should an applicant be offered a Graduate Fellowship by the Hertz Foundation, she or he must formally accept it before commencing its tenure. This acceptance includes a statement that the Fellow makes a moral commitment to make his or her “skills available to the United States in times of national emergency.”

What does this mean, and why does the Foundation require it?

John Hertz felt he owed the United States more than he could repay for the opportunities he had been given when he arrived here as a very young immigrant, fleeing ongoing oppression in central Europe. Thus it is not surprising that he wanted any young person who was going to be supported by his wealth through the course of their graduate education to deliberately answer, on at least one occasion, the question

“What do I owe my country?”

Hence, the statement on the Foundation’s Fellowship acceptance form.

Please note that this is not a legal or contractual obligation, but rather a freely given moral commitment.

No one from the Foundation has ever approached a present or former Fellow and told him or her that the United States faces a national emergency and she or he is obligated to address it. No one ever will.

The Foundation believes that each individual Fellow must decide for him/herself, at any point in time, whether the country faces a truly serious problem and, if so, whether he or she is capable of employing the technical skills they possess to help address it.

The Foundation offers no definition of what constitutes a “national emergency” – these are reasonably well-recognized only in distant hindsight – but one might consider as examples the following historical events in which scientists and engineers have played a major role:

the development of radar by British scientists and engineers in the late 1930s that enabled the RAF to win the Battle of Britain;
the Manhattan Project in the United States;
the Apollo Program that fulfilled President Kennedy’s declaration: “I believe this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before the decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth”.
In the future, we might reasonably expect our nation to face emergencies in

fuel shortages and quests for new energy sources, e.g. nuclear fusion
materials supplies
transportation and communication system overloads
deterioration of environmental quality
malevolent utilization of cyberspace
misuse of modern molecular biology
In every case, the Foundation believes that it is up to the individual Fellow to determine for herself or himself whether a serious problem exists and whether or not she or he can help. We believe that any Hertz Fellow answering the Hertz Question in the affirmative in any of these respects has a clear moral obligation to go to work accordingly.S